IT Topic4

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Wednesday, 17 June 2020

June 17, 2020

What is information technology and what does it encompass?

Information Technology and what does it encompass

tech professional standing in server room

What is information technology and what does it encompass?

The most basic information technology definition is that it's the application of technology to solve business or organizational problems on a broad scale. No matter the role, a member of an IT department works with others to solve technology problems, both big and small.
There are three primary pillars of responsibility for an IT department:
  1. IT governance: This refers to the combination of policies and processes that ensure IT systems are effectively run and in alignment with the organization’s needs.
  2. IT operations: This is a catchall category for the daily work of an IT department. This includes providing tech support, network maintenance, security testing and device management duties.
  3. Hardware and infrastructure: This focus area refers to all the physical components of IT infrastructure. This pillar of IT includes the setup and maintenance of equipment like routers, servers, phone systems and individual devices like laptops.
Even though an organization’s IT department handles many different functions and plays a critical role in keeping things running, Andrey Prokopchuk, head of IT at Belitsoft, says the perfect IT department is the one you aren’t even aware of. This means that they are able to automate and create processes for many of their daily tasks, so that the business continues to run smoothly. The ideal IT department is also aligned with the business’s goals and transparent in its processes in a way that the rest of the business can understand and provide input on.

Why is information technology important?

Simply put, the work of most organizations would slow to a crawl without functioning IT systems. You’d be hard-pressed to find a business that doesn’t at least partially rely on computers and the networks that connect them. Maintaining a standard level of service, security and connectivity is a huge task, but it’s not the only priority or potential challenge on their plates.

  • Data overload: Businesses need to process huge amounts of data. This requires large amounts of processing power, sophisticated software and human analytical skills.
  • Mobile and wireless usages: More employers are offering remote work options that require smartphones, tablets and laptops with wireless hotspots and roaming ability.
  • Cloud services: Most businesses no longer operate their own “server farms” to store massive amounts of data. Many businesses now work with cloud services—third-party hosting platforms that maintain that data.
  • Bandwidth for video hosting: Videoconferencing solutions have become more and more popular, so more network bandwidth is needed to support them sufficiently.
Based on the volume of these needs, you probably won’t be too surprised to learn that employment of computer and information technology occupations is projected to grow 13 percent from 2016 to 2026, which is faster than the average for all occupations, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics.*

Hardware vs. software

You know that working with hardware and software is a large part of an IT department’s work, but what counts as hardware? And what’s software? Let’s break down this important distinction.
Hardware includes all the physical parts of a computer system. This includes hardware installed inside the computer like the motherboard, central processing unit and hard drive. Hardware also describes components that can be connected to the outside of a computer like a keyboard, mouse and printer. Keep in mind though that some tablets and smaller laptops integrate items like a keyboard and a mouse within the device. Basically, hardware is any part, component or device related to computers and their networks that you can physically touch and manipulate.

So how does this distinction apply to an IT career? Nearly every IT job requires a blend of hardware and software-based know-how. Some IT workers may spend more time working with configuring hardware components, but those components are also governed by software. Additionally, IT professionals are responsible for deploying and setting up software applications for users.

Saturday, 14 March 2020

March 14, 2020

Shielded twisted pair cable

Shielded twisted pair cable:

Has a shield to protect from EMI
Good for higher data rates.


Type 1: two pair 22-AWG( American wire gauge) = 4.1 mm
Type 2: four pairs of type 1
Type 6: two pairs of 26 AWG STP
Type 7: one pair of 26 AWG STP
Type 9:  one 26 AWG STP.

Advantages of Twisted pair:

Low cost
Easy to install
High speed
Effective to EMI

Disadvantages of Twisted pair:

High attenuation
Short distance less than 100m

Friday, 13 March 2020

March 13, 2020

Twisted pair cable And Unshielded Twisted Pair

Twisted pair cable:


Two strands of copper wire twisted around each other
Also covered by plastic insulation
Easy to install and inexpensive
Noisy and interrupted by magnetic field

Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)

Voice grade and data grade
Very low cost
Two pairs (RJ-11 ) or four pairs (RJ-45)

Thursday, 12 March 2020

March 12, 2020

Router And Transmission media


Used to connect network of different types
Means different architecture and protocols
Direct messages in connection of several networks
Work on network layer
Exchange protocol info. Of message
Find best path to send data
Filter broadcast traffic to local segment
Have both hardware and software
Means configurable.

Hardware may be a server a computer or a special device
Software is
Management software
Routing protocols
Operating system

Routers use two type of addresses.
Physical or mac address
Logical or IP address
Routers do work of a bridge but they keep the network separate.
As have 2 addresses network address and device address so slower than bridge
Though slower yet more intelligent than bridge as they find best path to send a packet.

Transmission media

Links to send data in the form of signals from one node to another.

Tuesday, 3 March 2020

March 03, 2020

Types of Hub

Types of Hub:

Passive (do not amplify), concentration
Active (amplify), multi-port repeater
Have many built in features and protocols like SNMP support, virtual LAN support


Connect same type of networks
Increase length(as repeater)
Add new node (join multiple LANS)
Used to make connections at data link layer of OSI
Control data flow
No configuration needs(plug and play)
Repeater sends to all
Bridge sends message to selective segment only
Read address of source and destination
So know physical location of source & destination



Connects computers on a LAN
Work on data link layer
Identical to hub in shape but complex in function
Slightly more intelligent than hub
Selective transmission.
Conserve bandwidth.
Support 10/100 mbps
Fast Ethernet switch provide 10/100/1000 standard.

Available in different no of ports
To add larger no. of devices make daisy chain.