Turing Test, Chinese Room Test And History




Turing Test
Imitation Game Test!!!!


vThe Turing test is a test of a machine's ability to demonstrate intelligence.







Chinese Room Test:

A Counter Argument to Turing Test





In this test Searle says to imagine a Man no knowledge of chinese is trapped in a room. He is passed a paper with some chinese writing.  He finds a large batch of “Chinese writing” plus “a second batch of Chinese script" and "a set of rules" in English "for correlating the second batch with the first batch. The man follows the instructions and produces a result in chiese language. He himself has no knowledge of the language but gets so good in following instructions that the person standing outside starts to believe that this man is fluent in chinese
What Searle describes is a system that produces intelligent, meaningful output, in the absence of true understanding. If you accept this counter-example, then the Turing Test is doomed. The Chinese Room would pass the Turing test, even though it lacks understanding and intelligence.



History of the Turing Test

The test is named after Alan Turing, who pioneered machine learning during the 1940s and 1950s. Turing introduced the test in his 1950 paper called “Computing Machinery and Intelligence” while at the University of Manchester.
In his paper, Turing proposed a twist on what is called “The Imitation Game.” The Imitation Game involves no use of AI, but rather three human participants in three separate rooms. Each room is connected via a screen and keyboard, one containing a male, the other a female, and the other containing a male or female judge. The female tries to convince the judge that she is the male, and the judge tries to disseminate which is which.
Turing changes the concept of this game to include an AI, a human and a human questioner. The questioner’s job is then to decide which is the AI and which is the human. Science the formation of the test, many AI have been able to pass; one of the first is a program created by Joseph Weizenbaum called ELIZA.


Limitations of the Turing Test

The Turing Test has been criticized over the years, in particular because historically, the nature of the questioning had to be limited in order for a computer to exhibit human-like intelligence. For many years, a computer might only score high if the questioner formulated the queries, so they had "Yes" or "No" answers or pertained to a narrow field of knowledge. When questions were open-ended and required conversational answers, it was less likely that the computer program could successfully fool the questioner.


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